Introduction: (Initial Observation)
We need energy for our muscles and brain to work. We get this energy from a variety of foods that we eat every day. Each food has certain food elements or nutrients. For example some foods have sugar, some have protein and some have vitamins.
Our body needs the proper amount of each nutrient in order to grow and stay healthy. Some nutrients give us energy that we need to work or to think. Some others give us vitamins and other elements that our body needs to function properly.
It is important to know about nutrients in our food and keep a balance between different foods with different nutrients.
The Food Guide Pyramid was designed as an easy way to show the groups of foods that make up a good diet. It also shows how much of these different groups you need to eat to stay healthy. It is in a pyramid shape (rather than a circle or square) to explain the different proportions of foods to one another. The foods that make up the base (the widest part) should be the biggest part of your diet, and as you go up the pyramid, the amounts get smaller as the pyramid gets skinnier.
The Food Guide Pyramid is an outline of what to eat each day based on the Dietary Guidelines . It’s not a rigid prescription but a general guide that lets you choose a healthful diet that’s right for you.
The Pyramid calls for eating a variety of foods to get the nutrients you need and at the same time the right amount of calories to maintain healthy weight.
Use the Pyramid to help you eat better every day…the Dietary Guidelines way. Start with plenty of breads, cereals, rice, pasta, vegetables, and fruits. Add 2-3 servings from the milk group and 2-3 servings from the meat group. Remember to go easy on fats, oils, and sweets, the foods in the small tip of the Pyramid.
This is a display project. Students will use the provided information to make a display board.
Display projects do not have a question, hypothesis and experiment.
If you have any specific suggestion that can change this project to an experimental project, please let me know. Please note that the experimental projects start with a testable question.
Following is a large image of Food Guide Pyramid. Students can reproduce or redraw this pyramid as a part of their display. Drawing will help you to memorize and be able to explain different food groups that our body needs.
You may cut different images of food pyramid from color paper and paste it on a white card board.
In the pyramid, the amount of food suggested in each food group is based on servings. But how much of each food counts as one serving?
What Counts as One Serving?
The amount of food that counts as one serving is different based on the type of food and is listed below. If you eat a larger portion, count it as more than 1 serving. For example, a dinner portion of spaghetti would count as 2 or 3 servings of pasta.
Be sure to eat at least the lowest number of servings from the five major food groups listed below. You need them for the vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, and protein they provide. Just try to pick the lowest fat choices from the food groups. no specific serving size is given for the fats, oils, and sweets group because the message is USE SPARINGLY.
Milk, Yogurt, and Cheese
1 cup of milk or yogurt
1 1/2 ounces of natural cheese
2 ounces of process cheese
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts
2-3 ounces of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish
1/2 cup of cooked dry beans, 1 egg, or 2 tablespoons of peanut butter count as 1 ounce of lean meat
1 medium apple, banana, orange
1/2 cup of chopped, cooked, or canned fruit
3/4 cup of fruit juice
Bread, Cereal, rice, and Pasta
1 slice of bread
1 ounce of ready-to-eat cereal
1/2 cup of cooked cereal, rice, or pasta
To know what we get from each food group and more details about the elements of each group read the following. These are some recommendations about different food groups. We start from the base of pyramid, the food group that we eat the most.
Bread, Cereal, Rice, & Pasta Group (6-11 Servings)
To get the fiber you need, choose several servings a day of foods made from whole grains.
Choose most often foods that are made with little fat or sugars, like bread, English muffins, rice, and pasta.
Go easy on the fat and sugars you add as spreads, seasonings, or toppings.
When preparing pasta, stuffing, and sauce from packaged mixes, use only half the butter or margarine suggested; if milk or cream is called for, use low fat milk.
Vegetable Group 3-5 Servings
Different types of vegetables provide different nutrients.
Eat a variety.
Different types of vegetables provide different nutrients.Eat a variety.
Include dark-green leafy vegetables and legumes several times a week–they are especially good sources of vitamins and minerals. Legumes also provide protein and can be used in place of meat.
Go easy on the fat you add to vegetables at the table or during cooking. Added spreads or toppings, such as butter, mayonnaise, and salad dressing, count as fat.
Fruit Group 2-4 Servings
Choose fresh fruits, fruit juices, and frozen, canned, or dried fruit. Go easy on fruits canned or frozen in heavy syrups and
Eat whole fruits often–they are higher in fiber than fruit juices.sweetened fruit juices.
Count only 100 percent fruit juice as fruit. Punches and most fruit “drinks” contain only a little juice and lots of added sugars.
Milk, Yogurt, & Cheese 2-3 Servings
Choose skim milk and nonfat yogurt often. They are lowest in fat.
1 1/2 to 2 ounces of cheese and 8 ounces of yogurt count as a serving from this group because they supply the same amount of calcium as 1 cup of milk.
Choose “part skim” or low fat cheeses when available and lower fat milk desserts, like ice milk or frozen yogurt. Read labels.
Meat, Poultry, Fish 2-3 Servings
Choose lean meat, poultry without skin, fish, and dry beans and peas often. they are the choices lowest in fat.
Prepare meats in low fat ways:
_Trim away all the fat you can see.
_Remove skin from poultry.
_Broil, roast, or boil these foods instead of frying them.
Nuts and seeds are high in fat, so eat them in moderation.
Fats, Oils, & Sweets Use Sparingly
Go easy on fats and sugars added to foods in cooking or at the table–butter, margarine, gravy, salad dressing, sugar, and jelly.
Choose fewer foods that are high in sugars–candy, sweet desserts, and soft drinks.
The most effective way to moderate the amount of fat and added sugars in your diet is to cut down on “extras” (foods in this group). Also choose lower fat and lower sugar foods from the other five food groups often.
Make a display:
Make a display in the form of a nutrition pyramid or three fold display. Include drawings, plastic models and actual food items to make your display more interesting.
To see a complete list of nutrients and the food source for each nutrient use the following links. These information might be helpful for an adult that is helping a child in his/her project.
TABLE 1. THE PYRAMID GUIDE TO DAILY FOOD CHOICES
|Food Group||Suggested Daily Servings||What Counts as a Serving|
| Bread, Cereal, Rice, Pasta
|6 to 11 servings from entire group (Include several servings of whole-grain products daily.)|| 1 slice of bread
1/2 hamburger bun or English muffin
a small roll, biscuit, or muffin
5 to 6 small or 3 to 4 large crackers
1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice, or pasta
1 ounce ready-to-eat cereal
Citrus, melon, berries
|2 to 4 servings from entire group|| a whole fruit such as a medium apple, banana,
a grapefruit half
a melon wedge
3/4 cup juice
1/2 cup berries
1/2 cup chopped, cooked, or canned fruit
1/4 cup dried fruit
Dry beans and peas
| 3 to 5 servings
(Include all types regularly; use dark-green leafy vegetables and dry beans and peas several times a week.)
| 1/2 cup cooked vegetables
1/2 cup chopped raw vegetables
1 cup leafy raw vegetables, such as lettuce
3/4 cup vegetable juice
|Meats, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans and Peas, Eggs, and Nuts||2 to 3 servings from entire group|| Amounts should total 5 to 7 ounces of cooked
lean meat, poultry without skin, or fish a day. Count
1 egg, 1/2 cup cooked beans, or 2 tablespoons
peanut butter as 1 ounce of meat.
|Milk, Yogurt, Cheese|| 2 servings
(3 servings for women who are pregnant
or breast feeding, teenagers, and young adults
to age 24.)
| 1 cup milk
8 ounces yogurt
1-1/2 ounces natural cheese
2 ounces process cheese
| Fats, Sweets, and
| Use fats and sweets sparingly.
If you drink alcoholic beverages,
do so in moderation.
Note: The guide to daily food choices described here was developed for Americans who regularly eat foods from all the major food groups listed.
Some people such as vegetarians and others may not eat one or more of these types of foods. These people may wish to contact a dietitian or nutritionist
for help in planning food choices.